Ritesh’s Technical Blog

IP Address

Posted on: July 6, 2008

IP ADDRESS-

Every machine (Computer, Router, Fax machine etc) on Internet has an unique identifying number, called an IP Address. A typical IP address looks like this

216.27.61.137

The above representation of  Internet Protocol (IP) address is a dotted decimal number which can be easily understood by us. But computers understand Binary. look at the same IP Address in binary. To know more about internet protocol follow my thread http://www.merawindows.com/Forums/tabid/324/forumid/66/threadid/28889/scope/posts/Default.aspx

11011000.00011011.00111101.10001001


IP VERSIONS-

The internet protocol has 2 versions currently in use. Each version has its own definition of IP addresses. Because of its prevelance, IP Address are typically refer to those defined by IPv4

IP version 4 addresses: The four no in an Ip address are called octets because they have each 8 positions when viewed in binary. IPv4 only use 32 bit (4 byte) addresses, which limits the address scope to 4294967296 possible addresses.Out of the almost 4.3 billion possible combinations, certain values are restricted from used as typical IP Address. Foe eg:

0.0.0.0 is reserved for default network

255.255.255.255 is reserved for broadcasts


IPv4 address network:

Octets are used to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned to a particular buisness, govt or other entity based on size and need. The octets are split into 2 sections : NET and HOST. The NET section always contains the first  octet. It is used to identify the network that a computer belongs to. Host (sometimes referrred to as Node) identifies actual computer on ther network. The host section always contains the last octet. Their are % IP classes plus certain special addresses.

1. Default Network:           0.0.0.0

2. Class A: For eg: MNC’s use it

NET HOST
115. 24.53.107

In class A network, the higher order bit value (MSB) in the first octet is 0.

0nnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

3. Loopback:                  127.0.0.1

It is used by the host computer to send msg back to itself

4.Class B: For eg: Large college campus uses it

NET HOST
145.24. 53.107

Class B network has a first bit value of 1 and second as o in the first octet

10nnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

5.Class C: for eg: small mid size buisness uses it

NET HOST
195.24.53. 107

Class C network have a first bit value of 1, second as 1 and third as 0 in the first octet.

110nnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh

6.Class D: Used for multicasts.Class D is slightly different from the 3 classes. It has a first bit value as 1, second as 1, third as 1, and fourth as 0 in the first octet.

NET HOST
224. 24.53.107

The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast msg is for.

1110mmmm.mmmmmmmm.mmmmmmmm.mmmmmmmm

7. Class E: Experimental purpose only

NET HOST
240. 24.53.107

It has MSB as 1, second bit value as 1,third as 1, fourht as 1, the other 28 are reserved address bits

1111rrrr.rrrrrrrr.rrrrrrrr.rrrrrrrr.rrrrrrrr

8.Broadcasts: Message that are intented for all computer on a network are sent as a broadcast.on IP address 255.255.255.255.


IP version 6 addressing

IPv6 is a new standard protocol for replacing IPv4 from the internet, Addresses are 128 bits (16 byte) wide.

for eg: 2001:0DB8:AC10:FE01:0000:0000:0000:0000


Summary

Class Range of 1st Octet Network ID Host ID Possible no of networks Possible no of hosts for eg
A 1-127 a b.c.d 128 16,777,214 MNC’s
B 128-191 a.b c.d 16,384 65,534 Large college campus
C 192-223 a.b.c d 2,097,152 254 small buisness
D 224-239 multicasting
E 240 broadcasting

Want know your IP Adresses your service provider your Location then click here


Referrences:

1. Wikipedia

2. How stuff works

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